Seki et al. Immunokinetics in severe pneumonia due to influenza virus and bacteria coinfection in mice. Eur Respir J.2004; 24: 143-149
In this study, mice were inoculated with influenza virus, followed 2 days later by inoculation with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The kinetics of viral titres, bacterial numbers and the immune response (cytokine and chemokine production) were also analysed.
Short-term survival correlated with pathological changes in the lungs of infected mice. Influenza virus or S. pneumoniae infection alone induced moderate pneumonia; however, severe bronchopneumonia with massive haemorrhage in coinfected mice, which caused death of these mice 2 days after inoculation with S. pneumoniae, was noted. Intrapulmonary levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, type-1 T-helper cell cytokines and Toll-like receptors, and the related mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling molecules (phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase -1 and -2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase), were increased in coinfected mice.
These results suggest that immune mediators, including cytokines and chemokines, through Toll-like receptors/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, play important roles in the pathology of coinfection caused by influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- Linking influenza virus evolution within and between human hosts 17 hours ago
- Specific memory B cell response in humans upon infection with highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza virus 17 hours ago
- Comparison of sequencing methods and data processing pipelines for whole genome sequencing and minority single nucleotide variant (mSNV) analysis during an influenza A/H5N8 outbreak 17 hours ago
- Pulmonary surfactant-biomimetic nanoparticles potentiate heterosubtypic influenza immunity 17 hours ago
- Waterfowl occurrence and residence time as indicators of H5 and H7 avian influenza in North American Poultry 9 days ago