Seki et al. Immunokinetics in severe pneumonia due to influenza virus and bacteria coinfection in mice. Eur Respir J.2004; 24: 143-149
In this study, mice were inoculated with influenza virus, followed 2 days later by inoculation with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The kinetics of viral titres, bacterial numbers and the immune response (cytokine and chemokine production) were also analysed.
Short-term survival correlated with pathological changes in the lungs of infected mice. Influenza virus or S. pneumoniae infection alone induced moderate pneumonia; however, severe bronchopneumonia with massive haemorrhage in coinfected mice, which caused death of these mice 2 days after inoculation with S. pneumoniae, was noted. Intrapulmonary levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, type-1 T-helper cell cytokines and Toll-like receptors, and the related mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling molecules (phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase -1 and -2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase), were increased in coinfected mice.
These results suggest that immune mediators, including cytokines and chemokines, through Toll-like receptors/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, play important roles in the pathology of coinfection caused by influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- The epidemiological signature of influenza B virus and its B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in the 21st century 6 days ago
- Generation of a protective murine monoclonal antibody against the stem of influenza hemagglutinins from group 1 viruses and identification of resistance mutations against it 6 days ago
- Rapid evolution of Mexican H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in poultry 6 days ago
- Influenza Viruses in Mice: Deep Sequencing Analysis of Serial Passage and Effects of Sialic Acid Structural Variation 6 days ago
- Exogenous Interleukin-33 Contributes to Protective Immunity via Cytotoxic T-Cell Priming against Mucosal Influenza Viral Infection 6 days ago