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2020-2-26 2:36:20

Seki et al. Immunokinetics in severe pneumonia due to influenza virus and bacteria coinfection in mice. Eur Respir J.2004; 24: 143-149
submited by kickingbird at Oct, 28, 2004 19:9 PM from Eur Respir J.2004; 24: 143-149

Coinfections of bacteria and influenza are a major cause of excessive mortality during influenza epidemics. However, the mechanism of the synergy between influenza virus and bacteria are poorly understood.

In this study, mice were inoculated with influenza virus, followed 2 days later by inoculation with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The kinetics of viral titres, bacterial numbers and the immune response (cytokine and chemokine production) were also analysed.

Short-term survival correlated with pathological changes in the lungs of infected mice. Influenza virus or S. pneumoniae infection alone induced moderate pneumonia; however, severe bronchopneumonia with massive haemorrhage in coinfected mice, which caused death of these mice ~2 days after inoculation with S. pneumoniae, was noted. Intrapulmonary levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, type-1 T-helper cell cytokines and Toll-like receptors, and the related mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling molecules (phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase -1 and -2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase), were increased in coinfected mice.

These results suggest that immune mediators, including cytokines and chemokines, through Toll-like receptors/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, play important roles in the pathology of coinfection caused by influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

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