Zhu H, Li X, Chen H, Qian P. Genetic characterization and pathogenicity of a Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza reassortant virus. Virol J. 2022 Dec 2;19(1):205
Methods: Lung tissue samples were obtained from pregnant sows with miscarriage and respiratory disease in Heilongjiang province, and pathogens were detected by Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and PCR. The nucleic acid of isolates was extracted to detect SIV by RT-PCR. Then, SIV-positive samples were inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs. After successive generations, the isolates were identified by RT-PCR, IFA, WB and TEM. The genetic evolution and pathogenicity to mice of A/swine/Heilongjiang/GN/2020 were analyzed.
Results: The major pathogens were influenza virus (31%), Simbu orthobunyavirus (15%) and Jingmen tick virus (8%) by NGS, while the pathogen that can cause miscarriage and respiratory disease was influenza virus. The SIV(A/swine/Heilongjiang/GN/2020) with hemagglutination activity was isolated from lung samples and was successfully identified by RT-PCR, IFA, WB and TEM. Homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that A/swine/Heilongjiang/GN/2020 is most closely related to A/swine/Henan/SN/10/2018 and belonged to EA-H1N1. Pathogenicity in mice showed that the EA-H1N1 could cause lethal or exhibit extrapulmonary virus spread and cause severe damage to respiratory tracts effectively proliferating in lung and trachea.
Conclusion: A/swine/Heilongjiang/GN/2020 (EA-H1N1) virus was isolated from pregnant sows with miscarriage and respiratory disease in Heilongjiang province, China. Clinical signs associated with influenza infection were observed during 14 days with A/swine/Heilongjiang/GN/2020 infected mice. These data suggest that A/swine/Heilongjiang/GN/2020 (EA-H1N1) had high pathogenicity and could be systemic spread in mice.
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