Saengchoowong S, Nimsamer P, Khongnomnan K, Poomip. Enhancing the yield of seasonal influenza viruses through manipulation of microRNAs in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2022 Jun 6:153537022210983
Annual influenza vaccine is recommended to reduce the occurrence of seasonal influenza and its complications. Thus far, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line has been used to manufacture cell-based influenza vaccines. Even though host microRNAs may facilitate viral replication, the interaction between MDCK cells-derived microRNAs and seasonal influenza viruses has been less frequently investigated. Therefore, this study highlighted microRNA profiles of MDCK cells to increase the yield of seasonal influenza virus production by manipulating cellular microRNAs. MDCK cells were infected with influenza A or B virus at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01, and microRNA collections were then subjected to MiSeq (Illumina) Sequencing. The validated profiles revealed that cfa-miR-340, cfa-miR-146b, cfa-miR-197, and cfa-miR-215 were the most frequently upregulated microRNAs. The effect of candidate microRNA inhibition and overexpression on viral replication was determined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The hybridization pattern between candidate miRNAs and viral genes was performed using miRBase and RNAhybrid web-based programs. Moreover, the predicted microRNA-binding sites were validated by a 3´-UTR reporter assay. The results indicated that cfa-miR-146b could directly target the PB1 gene of A/pH1N1 and the PA gene of B/Yamagata. Furthermore, cfa-miR-215 could silence the PB1 gene of A/pH1N1 and the PB1 gene of B/Victoria. However, the PB2 gene of the A/H3N2 virus was silenced by cfa-miR-197. In addition, the HA and NA sequences of influenza viruses harvested from the cell cultures treated with microRNA inhibitors were analyzed. The sequencing results revealed no difference in the antigenic HA and NA sequences between viruses isolated from the cells treated with microRNA inhibitors and the parental viruses. In conclusion, these findings suggested that MDCK cell-derived microRNAs target viral genes in a strain-specific manner for suppressing viral replication. Conversely, the use of such microRNA inhibitors may facilitate the production of influenza viruses.
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