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2022-8-14 12:11:46


Pulit-Penaloza JA, Brock N, Jones J, Belser JA, Ja. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Human Seasonal and Swine-origin A(H1) Influenza Viruses in the Ferret Model. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2022 May 10:1-20
submited by kickingbird at May, 11, 2022 14:1 PM from Emerg Microbes Infect. 2022 May 10:1-20

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in the swine reservoir constantly evolve, resulting in expanding genetic and antigenic diversity of strains that occasionally cause infections in humans and pose threat of emerging as a strain capable of human-to-human transmission. For these reasons, there is an ongoing need for surveillance and characterization of newly emerging strains to aid pandemic preparedness efforts, particularly for the selection of candidate vaccine viruses and conducting risk assessments. Here, we performed a parallel comparison of the pathogenesis and transmission of genetically and antigenically diverse swine-origin A(H1N1) variant (v) and A(H1N2)v, and human seasonal A(H1N1)pdm09 IAVs using the ferret model. Both groups of viruses were capable of replication in the ferret upper respiratory tract; however, variant viruses were more frequently isolated from the lower respiratory tract as compared to the human-adapted viruses. Regardless of virus origin, observed clinical signs of infection differed greatly between strains, with some viruses causing nasal discharge, sneezing and, in some instances, diarrhea in ferrets. The most striking difference between the viruses was the ability to transmit through the air. Human-adapted viruses were capable of airborne transmission between all ferret pairs. In contrast, only one out of the four tested variant viruses was able to transmit via the air as efficiently as the human-adapted viruses. Overall, this work highlights the need for sustained monitoring of emerging swine IAVs to identify strains of concern such as those that are antigenically different from vaccine strains and that possess adaptations required for efficient respiratory droplet transmission in mammals.

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