Nogales A, Chiem K, Breen M, DeDiego ML, Parrish C. Generation and Characterization of Single-Cycle Infectious Canine Influenza A Virus (sciCIV) and Its Use as Vaccine Platform. Methods Mol Biol. 2022;2465:227-255
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) infect a broad range of hosts, including multiple avian and mammalian species. The frequent emergence of novel IAV strains in different hosts, including in humans, results in the need for vigilance and ongoing development of new approaches to fighting or prevent those infections. Canine influenza is a contagious respiratory disease in dogs caused by two subtypes of IAV, the equine-origin H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV), and the avian-origin H3N2 CIV. A novel approach to influenza vaccination involves single-cycle infectious influenza A viruses (sciIAVs), which are defective for an essential viral gene. They are propagated in complementing cell lines which provide the missing gene in trans. As sciIAV cannot complete their replication cycle in regular cells they are limited to a single round of viral replication. Because of their safety profile and ability to express foreign antigens inside infected cells, sciIAVs have served both as live-attenuated vaccines and as vaccine vectors for the expression of heterologous antigens. Here, we describe experimental procedures for the generation of a single-cycle infectious CIV (sciCIV), where the viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene was exchanged for the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP). Complementation of the viral HA protein is provided in trans by stable HA-expressing cell lines. Methods for the in vitro characterization of HA deficient but GFP-expressing sciCIV (sciCIV ΔHA/GFP) are described, as well as its use as a potential vaccine.
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