Huang X, Lu F, Tian H, Hu H, Ning F, Shang Q, Hao. Association between plasma glycocalyx component levels and poor prognosis in severe influenza type A (H1N1). Sci Rep. 2022 Jan 7;12(1):163
Influenza A virus infection causes a series of diseases, but the factors associated with disease severity are not fully understood. Disruption of the endothelial glycocalyx contributes to acute lung injury in sepsis, but has not been well studied in H1N1 influenza. We aim to determine whether the plasma glycocalyx components levels are predictive of disease severity in H1N1 influenza. This prospective observational study included 53 patients with influenza A (H1N1) during the influenza season, and 30 healthy controls in our hospital. Patients were grouped by severity and survival. We collected clinical data and blood samples at admission. Inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-10) and endothelial glycocalyx components (syndecan-1, hyaluronan, heparan sulfate) were measured. The plasma levels of syndecan-1, hyaluronan, and heparan sulfate were significantly higher in patients with severe influenza A (H1N1) than in mild cases. Syndecan-1 and hyaluronan were positively correlated with disease severity, which was indicated by the APACHE II and SOFA scores and lactate levels, and negatively correlated with albumin levels. At a cutoff point ≥ 173.9 ng/mL, syndecan-1 had a 81.3% sensitivity and 70.3% specificity for predicting of 28-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a strong association between syndecan-1 levels and 28-day mortality (log-rank 11.04, P = 0.001). Elevated plasma levels of syndecan-1 has a potential role in systemic organ dysfunction and may be indicative of disease severity in patients with influenza A (H1N1).
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