Zhou B, Wang L, Liang Y, Li J, Pan X. Arctiin suppresses H9N2 avian influenza virus-mediated inflammation via activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2021 Nov 26;21(1):289
Methods: The antiviral effect against H9N2 virus was determined by plaque reduction assay (PRA) and progeny virus reduction assay. We employed MTT assay, qRT-PCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence and Western blotting to better understand the anti-inflammatory effect and corresponding mechanism of arctiin on H9N2 virus-infected cells.
Results: The results showed that arctiin had antiviral activity against H9N2 virus. Arctiin treatment reduced H9N2 virus-triggered proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, and TNF-α. Moreover, arctiin significantly suppressed H9N2 virus-mediated expression of COX-2 and PGE2. Furthermore, we found that arctiin inhibited H9N2 virus-mediated activation of RIG-I/JNK MAPK signaling. Interestingly, arctiin treatment obviously reversed H9N2 virus-induced reduction of Nrf2, increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and upregulated Nrf2 signaling target genes (HO-1 and SOD2). Zinc protoporphyrin (Znpp)-an HO-1 inhibitor-weakened the inhibitory effect of arctiin on H9N2 virus-induced RIG-I/JNK MAPK and proinflammatory mediators.
Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggested that the anti-inflammatory effects of arctiin on H9N2 virus infection may be due to the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 and blocked RIG-I/JNK MAPK signaling; thus, arctiin may be a promising agent for prevention and treatment of H9N2 virus infections.
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