Lu G, Ou J, Cai S, Lai Z, Zhong L, Yin X, Li S. Canine Interferon-Inducible Transmembrane Protein Is a Host Restriction Factor That Potently Inhibits Replication of Emerging Canine Influenza Virus. Front Immunol. 2021 Oct 14;12:710705
Canine influenza virus (CIV) is an emerging virus that is associated with major hidden hazards to the canine population and public health. Until now, how canine uses its innate immunity to restrict CIV replication is seldomly investigated. Recently, studies on interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) of several major hosts of influenza virus (human, chicken, duck, pig) indicated it can potently restrict the viral replication. Here, the gene locus of five previously annotated canine IFITM (caIFITM) genes was determined on chromosome 18 using multiple bioinformatics strategies, provisionally designated as caIFITM1, caIFITM2a, caIFITM2b, caIFITM3, and caIFITM5. An analysis on protein sequences between caIFITM and its homologs indicated they shared the same conserved amino acids important for the antiviral activity. Expression profile analysis showed that caIFITM was constitutively expressed in tissues and MDCK cell line. After treatment with interferon or infection with influenza virus, the expression level of caIFITM increased with different degrees in vitro. An animal challenge study demonstrated CIV infection resulted in upregulation of caIFITM in beagles. caIFITMs had a similar subcellular localization to their human homologs. caIFITM1 was present at the cell surface and caIFITM3 was present perinuclearly and colocalized with LAMP1-containing compartments. Finally, we generated A549 cell lines stably expressing caIFITM and challenged them with influenza virus. The result demonstrated caIFITM1, caIFITM2a, caIFITM2b, and caIFITM3 had a potent antiviral activity against influenza virus. Our study will help better understand the evolutional pattern of IFITM and its role in the host´s defense against virus infection.
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