El-Sayed MM, Arafa AS, Abdelmagid M, Youssef AI. Epidemiological surveillance of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection among chickens in farms and backyards in Egypt 2015-2016. Vet World. 2021 Apr;14(4):949-955
Materials and methods: Direct detection of H9N2 AIV was performed by detecting the virus in tracheal and cloacal swabs using real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. A total of 20,421 samples were collected from chickens in farms and backyards in 26 Egyptian governorates.
Results: In 2015, cases positive for H9N2 AIV numbered 388 (3.9%) out of 10,016 examined cases. However, in 2016, the total positive cases numbered 447 (4.3%) out of 10,405 examined cases. The prevalence of H9N2 AIV among chickens on commercial farms was 4.6% out of the 16,666 chickens examined. The rates of positive cases in 2015 and 2016 were 4.4% (349/7884) and 4.7% (417/8782), respectively. The prevalence of H9N2 AIV in backyard chickens was 1.8% (69/3755). The rates of positive cases in backyard chickens were 1.8% (39/2132) in 2015 and again 1.8% (30/1623) in 2016. The highest positivity rate of H9N2 in chicken farms was in Beni-Suef (61.5%) (8/13), whereas the highest positivity rate in backyard chickens was in Fayoum (8.2%) (8/97).
Conclusion: The analysis of H9N2 infections among chicken farms and in backyard chickens in the different governorates of Egypt over 2 years indicated widespread infection throughout the country. Thus, continuous surveillance and implementation of control programs are warranted.
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