Tasker S, Wight O´Rourke A, Suyundikov A, Ja. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Novel Intranasal Influenza Vaccine (NasoVAX): A Phase 2 Randomized, Controlled Trial. Vaccines (Basel). 2021 Mar 5;9(3):224
Annual influenza vaccination greatly reduces morbidity and mortality, but effectiveness remains sub-optimal. Weaknesses of current vaccines include low effectiveness against mismatched strains, lack of mucosal and other effective tissue-resident immune responses, weak cellular immune responses, and insufficiently durable immune responses. The safety and immunogenicity of NasoVAX, a monovalent intranasal influenza vaccine based on a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5 platform, were evaluated in a placebo-controlled single ascending-dose study. Sixty healthy adults (18-49 years) received a single intranasal dose of 1×109 viral particles (vp), 1 × 1010 vp, or 1 × 1011 vp of NasoVAX or placebo. NasoVAX was well-tolerated and elicited robust influenza-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. The highest NasoVAX dose and the approved Fluzone? influenza vaccine elicited comparable hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) geometric mean titers (152.8 vs. 293.4) and microneutralization (MN) geometric mean titers (142.5 vs. 162.8), with NasoVAX HAI titers maintained more than 1-year on average following a single dose. Hemagglutinin-specific T cells responses were also documented in peripheral mononuclear cell (PBMC) preparations. Consistent with the intranasal route of administration, NasoVAX elicited antigen-specific mucosal IgA responses in the nasopharyngeal cavity with an increase of approximately 2-fold over baseline GMT at the mid- and high-doses. In summary, NasoVAX appeared safe and elicited a broad immune response, including humoral, cellular, and mucosal immunity, with no impact of baseline anti-adenovirus antibody at the most immunogenic dose.
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