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2020-12-2 21:27:23

Huang SW, Wang SF. The Effects of Genetic Variation on H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus Pathogenicity. Viruses. 2020 Oct 28;12(11):E1220
submited by kickingbird at Nov, 2, 2020 13:7 PM from Viruses. 2020 Oct 28;12(11):E1220

Since the H7N9 avian influenza virus emerged in China in 2013, there have been five seasonal waves which have shown human infections and caused high fatality rates in infected patients. A multibasic amino acid insertion seen in the HA of current H7N9 viruses occurred through natural evolution and reassortment, and created a high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus from the low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in 2017, and significantly increased pathogenicity in poultry, resulting in widespread HPAI H7N9 in poultry, which along with LPAI H7N9, contributed to the severe fifth seasonal wave in China. H7N9 is a novel reassorted virus from three different subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) which displays a great potential threat to public health and the poultry industry. To date, no sustained human-to-human transmission has been recorded by the WHO. However, the high ability of evolutionary adaptation of H7N9 and lack of pre-existing immunity in humans heightens the pandemic potential. Changes in IAVs proteins can affect the viral transmissibility, receptor binding specificity, pathogenicity, and virulence. The multibasic amino acid insertion, mutations in hemagglutinin, deletion and mutations in neuraminidase, and mutations in PB2 contribute to different virological characteristics. This review summarized the latest research evidence to describe the impacts of viral protein changes in viral adaptation and pathogenicity of H7N9, aiming to provide better insights for developing and enhancing early warning or intervention strategies with the goal of preventing highly pathogenic IAVs circulation in live poultry, and transmission to humans.

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