Jin L, Liu EM, Xie XH, Hu Y, Liao W. Comparative analysis of clinical features and risk factors of severe pneumonia development in pediatric patients hospitalized with seasonal influenza or swine-origin influenza infection. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2020;10.17219/acem/121520
Objectives: To describe epidemiological and clinical features in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection caused by a novel swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) and seasonal influenza virus A (IVA).
Material and methods: A total of 1,074 nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples were collected from children hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infections. The RNAs of S-OIV and seasonal IVA in the samples were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Results: The presence of IVA was detected in 105 samples (9.8%), including S-OIV in 15 samples (1.4%) and seasonal IVA in the remaining samples (8.4%). The incidence of both viral infections was lower in autumn and winter. The rates of severe pneumonia in patients with S-OIV and seasonal IVA were 6.7% and 15.6%, respectively. In total, 14 out of 90 seasonal IVA-positive cases were categorized as severe pneumonia and 1 out of 15 S-OIV-positive cases as severe bronchiolitis. Five samples were found to have single S-OIV infection among 15 S-OIV-positive cases, while other respiratory viruses were detected in the other 9 samples. Twenty-one samples were found to be single seasonal-IVA-positive among the 90 seasonal-IVA-positive cases. Underlying heart conditions (odds ratio (OR) = 13.60), wheezing (OR = 6.82) and co-infection with adenovirus (OR = 6.21) were risk factors for developing severe pneumonia in seasonal IVA patients.
Conclusions: Children younger than 2 years appeared to be susceptible to both kinds of viral infection. Diagnoses of non-severe respiratory tract infection were mainly made for patients with S-OIV and IVA infection. Underlying heart conditions, wheezing and co-infection with adenovirus increase the risk of developing severe pneumonia in seasonal IVA patients.
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