Chambers TM. Equine Influenza. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2020 Mar 9.
Horses are the third major mammalian species, along with humans and swine, long known to be subject to acute upper respiratory disease from influenza A virus infection. The viruses responsible are subtype H7N7, which is believed extinct, and H3N8, which circulates worldwide. The equine influenza lineages are clearly divergent from avian influenza lineages of the same subtypes. Their genetic evolution and potential for interspecies transmission, as well as clinical features and epidemiology, are discussed. Equine influenza is spread internationally and vaccination is central to control efforts. The current mechanism of international surveillance and virus strain recommendations for vaccines is described.
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