Xia C, et al. PARP1 enhances influenza A virus propagation by facilitating degradation of host type I interferon receptor. J Virol. 2020 Jan 8
Influenza A virus (IAV) utilizes multiple strategies to confront or evade host type I interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses in order to enhance its own propagation within the host. One such strategy is to induce the degradation of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) by utilizing viral hemagglutinin (HA). However, the molecular mechanism behind this process is poorly understood. Here, we report that a cellular protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), plays a critical role in mediating IAV HA induced degradation of IFNAR1. We identified PARP1 as an interacting partner for IAV HA through mass spectrometry analysis. This interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Furthermore, confocal fluorescence microscopy showed altered localization of endogenous PARP1 upon transient IAV HA expression or during IAV infection. Knockdown or inhibition of PARP1 rescued IFNAR1 levels upon IAV infection or HA expression, exemplifying the importance of PARP1 for IAV-induced reduction of IFNAR1. Notably, PARP1 was crucial for the robust replication of IAV, which was associated with regulation of the type I IFN receptor signaling pathway. These results indicate that PARP1 promotes IAV replication by controlling viral HA-induced degradation of host type I IFN receptor. Altogether, these findings provide novel insight into interactions between influenza virus and the host innate immune response and reveal a new function for PARP1 during influenza virus infection.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) infections cause seasonal and pandemic influenza, which pose a devastating global health concern. Despite the availability of antivirals against influenza, new IAV strains continue to persist by overcoming the therapeutics. Therefore, much emphasis in the field is placed on identifying new therapeutic targets that can more effectively control influenza. IAV utilizes several tactics to evade host innate immunity, which include the evasion of antiviral type I interferon (IFN) responses. Degradation of type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) is one known method of subversion, but the molecular mechanism for IFNAR downregulation during IAV infection remains unclear. Here we have found that a host protein poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) facilitates IFNAR degradation and accelerates IAV replication. The findings reveal a novel cellular target for the potential development of antivirals against influenza, as well as expand our base of knowledge regarding interactions between influenza and the host innate immunity.
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