Bo-Shun Z, et al. Co-infection of H9N2 influenza virus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa contributes to the development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. Vet Microbiol. 2020 Jan;240:108542.
Influenza A virus (IAV) and bacteria co-infection can influence the host clinical conditions. Both H9N2 IAV and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) are potential pathogens of respiratory diseases in mink. In this study, to clarify the effects of H9N2 IAV and P. aeruginosa co-infections on hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink, we carried out to establish the mink models of the two-pathogen co-infections in different orders. Compared with the single infections with H9N2 IAV or P. aeruginosa, the mink co-infected with H9N2 IAV and P. aeruginosa showed severe respiratory diseases, and exacerbated histopathological lesions and more obvious apoptosis in the lung tissues. H9N2 IAV shedding and viral loads in the lungs of the mink co-infected with H9N2 IAV and P. aeruginosa were higher than those in the mink with single H9N2 IAV infection. Furthermore, the clearance of P. aeruginosa in the co-infected mink lungs was delayed. In addition, the anti-H9N2 antibody titers in mink with P. aeruginosa co-infection following H9N2 IAV infection were significantly higher than those of the other groups. This implied that H9N2 IAV and P. aeruginosa co-infection contributed to the development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink, and that P. aeruginosa should play a major role in the disease. The exact interaction mechanism among H9N2 IAV, P. aeruginosa and the host needs to be further investigated.
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