Hajam IA, Kim J, Lee JH. Intranasally administered polyethylenimine adjuvanted influenza M2 ectodomain induces partial protection against H9N2 influenza A virus infection in chickens. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2019 Mar;209:78-83.
This study aimed to investigate whether intranasally coadministered four tandem copies of extracellular domains of M2 (M2e) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), a mucosal adjuvant, can protect chickens against H9N2 influenza A virus infection. Groups of chickens were intranasally vaccinated with M2e plus PEI adjuvant, M2e alone or PEI adjuvant, and antibody (serum IgG and mucosal IgA) and cellular (CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ levels) immune responses were measured post-vaccination. We demonstrated that the chickens vaccinated with M2e plus PEI adjuvant showed significantly (p?0.05) higher M2e-specific systemic IgG and mucosal IgA responses compared to the chickens that received either M2e alone or PEI adjuvant. The IgA responses measured in lungs were almost comparable to that of the serum IgG levels. Upon restimulation of the vaccinated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with M2e antigen, significantly (p?0.05) higher IFN-γ levels were observed only in M2e plus PEI adjuvant vaccinated group. Lymphoproliferative and CD4+ T cell responses, as measured by MTT-based assay and flow cytometry, respectively, were also observed significantly (p?0.05) higher in M2e plus PEI adjuvant vaccinated chickens. On challenge with the H9N2 virus (104TCID50) at 28th day post-vaccination, M2e plus PEI adjuvant vaccinated group exhibited lower lung inflammation and viral load compared to the chickens treated with either M2e alone or PEI adjuvant. In summary, we show that intranasally coadministered M2e and PEI adjuvant can elicit humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and can reduce viremia levels in chickens post H9N2 infection in chickens.
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