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2019-5-20 13:34:07


Nuvey FS, et al. Evaluation of the sentinel surveillance system for influenza-like illnesses in the Greater Accra region, Ghana, 2018. PLoS One. 2019 Mar 14;14(3):e0213627
submited by kickingbird at Mar, 16, 2019 11:5 AM from PLoS One. 2019 Mar 14;14(3):e0213627

BACKGROUND:
Influenza-like Illness (ILI) is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or another respiratory illness with a common set of symptoms. The deaths of four schoolchildren, during a pandemic influenza outbreak in December 2017 in Ghana, raised doubts about the ILI surveillance system´s performance. We evaluated the ILI surveillance system in the Greater Accra region, Ghana, to assess the system´s attributes and its performance on set objectives.
METHODS:
CDC guidelines were used to evaluate the data of the ILI surveillance system between 2013 and 2017. We interviewed the surveillance personnel on the system´s description and operation. Additionally, routinely entered ILI data from the National Influenza Center provided by the six sentinel sites in Accra was extracted. We sampled and reviewed 120 ILI case-investigation forms from these sites. Surveillance activities were examined on system´s performance indicators, each being scored on a scale of 1 to 3 (poorest to best performance).
RESULTS:
All population and age groups were under ILI surveillance over the period evaluated. Overall, 2948 suspected case-patients, including 392 (13.3%) children under-five were reported, with 219 being positive for influenza virus (Predictive value positive = 7.4%). The predominant influenza subtype was H3N2, recorded in 90 (41.1%) of positive case-patients. The system only met two out of its four objectives. None of the six sentinel sites consistently met their annual 260 suspected case-detection quota. Samples reached the laboratory on average 48 hours after collection and results were disseminated within 7 days. Of 120 case-investigation forms sampled, 91 (76.3%) were completely filled in.
CONCLUSIONS:
The ILI surveillance system in the Greater Accra region is only partially meeting its objectives. While it is found to be sensitive, representative and timely, the data quality was sub-optimal. We recommend the determination of thresholds for alert and outbreak detection and ensuring that sentinel sites meet their weekly case-detection targets.

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