Tseng YC, et al. Egg-based influenza split virus vaccine with monoglycosylation induces cross-strain protection against influenza virus infections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Feb 19
Each year influenza virus infections cause hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide and a significant level of morbidity with major economic burden. At the present time, vaccination with inactivated virus vaccine produced from embryonated chicken eggs is the most prevalent method to prevent the infections. However, current influenza vaccines are only effective against closely matched circulating strains and must be updated and administered yearly. Therefore, generating a vaccine that can provide broad protection is greatly needed for influenza vaccine development. We have previously shown that vaccination of the major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus with a single N-acetylglucosamine at each of the N-glycosylation sites [monoglycosylated HA (HAmg)] can elicit better cross-protection compared with the fully glycosylated HA (HAfg). In the current study, we produced monoglycosylated inactivated split H1N1 virus vaccine from chicken eggs by the N-glycosylation process inhibitor kifunensine and the endoglycosidase Endo H, and intramuscularly immunized mice to examine its efficacy. Compared with vaccination of the traditional influenza vaccine with complex glycosylations from eggs, the monoglycosylated split virus vaccine provided better cross-strain protection against a lethal dose of virus challenge in mice. The enhanced antibody responses induced by the monoglycosylated vaccine immunization include higher neutralization activity, higher hemagglutination inhibition, and more HA stem selectivity, as well as, interestingly, higher antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. This study provides a simple and practical procedure to enhance the cross-strain protection of influenza vaccine by removing the outer part of glycans from the virus surface through modifications of the current egg-based process.
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