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2019-2-17 0:39:23

Levene RE, Gaglia MM. Host Shutoff in Influenza A Virus: Many Means to an End. Viruses. 2018 Sep 5;10(9).
submited by kickingbird at Sep, 13, 2018 10:37 AM from Viruses. 2018 Sep 5;10(9).

Influenza A virus carries few of its own proteins, but uses them effectively to take control of the infected cells and avoid immune responses. Over the years, host shutoff, the widespread down-regulation of host gene expression, has emerged as a key process that contributes to cellular takeover in infected cells. Interestingly, multiple mechanisms of host shutoff have been described in influenza A virus, involving changes in translation, RNA synthesis and stability. Several viral proteins, notably the non-structural protein NS1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the endoribonuclease PA-X have been implicated in host shutoff. This multitude of host shutoff mechanisms indicates that host shutoff is an important component of the influenza A virus replication cycle. Here we review the various mechanisms of host shutoff in influenza A virus and the evidence that they contribute to immune evasion and/or viral replication. We also discuss what the purpose of having multiple mechanisms may be.

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