Comparing Influenza Virus Biology for Understanding Influenza D Virus

The newest type of influenza virus, influenza D virus (IDV), was isolated in 2011. IDV circulates in several animal species worldwide, causing mild respiratory illness in its natural hosts. Importantly, IDV does not cause clinical disease in humans and does not spread easily from person to person. Here, we review what is known about the host-pathogen interactions that may limit IDV illness. We focus on early immune interactions between the virus and infected host cells in our summary of what is known about IDV pathogenesis. This work establishes a foundation for future research into IDV infection and immunity in mammalian hosts.