Risk profile of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus infections in farms in southern Vietnam

The impact of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) has been confirmed mainly in farms. Unlike apparent losses caused by the high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), the LPAI impact has been hardly evaluated due to underestimating its spread and damage. In 2019, a questionnaire study was conducted in southern Vietnam to identify the specific risk factors of LPAI virus (LPAIV) circulation and to find associations between husbandry activities and LPAI prevalence. A multilevel regression analysis indicated that keeping Muscovy ducks during farming contributed to LPAIV positivity [Odds ratio=208.2 (95% confidence interval: 13.4-1.1×104)]. In cluster analysis, farmers willing to report avian influenza (AI) events and who agreed with the local AI control policy had a slightly lower risk for LPAIV infection although there was no significance in the correlation between farmer characteristics and LPAI occurrence. These findings indicated that keeping Muscovy ducks without appropriate countermeasures might increase the risk of LPAIV infection. Furthermore, specific control measures at the local level are effective for LPAIV circulation, and the improvement of knowledge about biosecurity and attitude contributes to reducing LPAI damage.