Next generation live-attenuated influenza vaccine platforms

Introduction: : Influenza virus is a major cause of seasonal epidemics and intermittent pandemics. Despite the current molecular biology and vaccine development, influenza virus infection is a significant burden. Vaccines are considered an essential countermeasure for effective control and prevention of influenza virus infection. Even though current influenza virus vaccines provide efficient protection against seasonal influenza outbreaks, the efficacy of these vaccines is not suitable due to antigenic changes of the viruses.

Areas covered: This review focuses on different live-attenuated platforms for influenza virus vaccine development and proposes essential considerations for a rational universal influenza virus vaccine design.

Expert opinion: : Despite the recent efforts for universal influenza virus vaccines, there is a lack of broadly reactive antibodies induction that can confer broad and long-lasting protection. Various strategies using live-attenuated influenza virus vaccines (LAIVs) are investigated to induce broadly reactive, durable, and cross-protective immune responses. LAIVs based on NS segment truncation prevent influenza virus infection and have shown to be effective vaccine candidates among other vaccine platforms. Although many approaches have been used for LAIVs generation, there is still a need to focus on the LAIVs development platforms to generate a universal influenza virus vaccine candidate.