Prevalence, Genetics and Evolutionary Properties of Eurasian Avian-like H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses in Liaoning

Swine influenza virus (SIV) is an important zoonosis pathogen. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus (2009/H1N1) highlighted the importance of the role of pigs as intermediate hosts. Liaoning province, located in northeastern China, has become one of the largest pig-farming areas since 2016. However, the epidemiology and evolutionary properties of SIVs in Liaoning are largely unknown. We performed systematic epidemiological and genetic dynamics surveillance of SIVs in Liaoning province during 2020. In total, 33,195 pig nasal swabs were collected, with an SIV detection rate of 2%. Our analysis revealed that multiple subtypes of SIVs are co-circulating in the pig population in Liaoning, including H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 SIVs. Furthermore, 24 H1N1 SIVs were confirmed to belong to the EA H1N1 lineage and divided into two genotypes. The two genotypes were both triple reassortant, and the predominant one with polymerase, nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix protein (M) genes originating from 2009/H1N1; hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes originating from EA H1N1; and the nonstructural protein (NS) gene originating from triple reassortant H1N2 (TR H1N2) was detected in Liaoning for the first time. According to our evolutionary analysis, the EA H1N1 virus in Liaoning will undergo further genome variation.