How Influenza A Virus NS1 Deals with the Ubiquitin System to Evade Innate Immunity

Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification regulating critical cellular processes such as protein degradation, trafficking and signaling pathways, including activation of the innate immune response. Therefore, viruses, and particularly influenza A virus (IAV), have evolved different mechanisms to counteract this system to perform proper infection. Among IAV proteins, the non-structural protein NS1 is shown to be one of the main virulence factors involved in these viral hijackings. NS1 is notably able to inhibit the host´s antiviral response through the perturbation of ubiquitination in different ways, as discussed in this review.