Circulation patterns of human seasonal Influenza A viruses in Chile before H1N1pdm09 pandemic

Understanding the diversity and circulation dynamics of seasonal influenza viruses is key to public health decision-making. The limited genetic information of pre-pandemic seasonal IAVs in Chile has made it difficult to accurately reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of these viruses within the country. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of pre-pandemic human seasonal IAVs in Chile. We sequenced the complete genome of 42 historic IAV obtained between 1996 and 2007. The phylogeny was determined using HA sequences and complemented using other segments. Time-scale phylogenetic analyses revealed that the diversity of pre-pandemic human seasonal IAVs in Chile was influenced by continuous introductions of new A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 lineages and constant viral exchange between Chile and other countries every year. These results provide important knowledge about genetic diversity and evolutionary patterns of pre-pandemic human seasonal IAVs in Chile, which can help design optimal surveillance systems and prevention strategies. However, future studies with current sequences should be conducted.