Avian influenza H10 subtype viruses continuously pose threat to public health in China

Wang and colleges recently reported in this journal the first case of human infection with H10N3 virus in China. 1 In China, H10 subtype (H10N2, H10N3, H10N6, H10N7, H10N8, and et. al.) avian influenza virus (AIV) had distributed in poultry and wild bird populations in China. 2 Because poultry showed no clinical symptoms when infected with H10 subtype viruses, their eradication had not been a priority for the control of zoonosis diseases in China. However, H10 subtype viruses had continuously contributed to some zoonotic spillover events. In 2010, a number of cases of human infected with H10N7 were reported in Australia 2 , and subsequently, China reported that the first human case of H10N8 infection that resulted in a human death in 2013 and the recently emerged human-infecting H10N3 virus in 2021. 1 ,3 Therefore, the H10 subtype AIV poses continuous public health concerns. To that purpose, we systematically analyzes the evolutionary dynamics and dissemination pathways of H10 subtype AIV in China.