Wang and colleges recently reported in this journal the first case of human infection with H10N3 virus in China. 1 In China, H10 subtype (H10N2, H10N3, H10N6, H10N7, H10N8, and et. al.) avian influenza virus (AIV) had distributed in poultry and wild bird populations in China. 2 Because poultry showed no clinical symptoms when infected with H10 subtype viruses, their eradication had not been a priority for the control of zoonosis diseases in China. However, H10 subtype viruses had continuously contributed to some zoonotic spillover events. In 2010, a number of cases of human infected with H10N7 were reported in Australia 2 , and subsequently, China reported that the first human case of H10N8 infection that resulted in a human death in 2013 and the recently emerged human-infecting H10N3 virus in 2021. 1 ,3 Therefore, the H10 subtype AIV poses continuous public health concerns. To that purpose, we systematically analyzes the evolutionary dynamics and dissemination pathways of H10 subtype AIV in China.