A Case of Nephrotic Syndrome that Resolved with Influenza B Infection

It has been postulated that measles virus infection is associated with remission of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in childhood. There are few reports on the correlation of INS remission with other infections. Previously, there have been two case reports suggesting an association between influenza B virus infection and the remission of INS. The patient was an 18-year-old Japanese woman. The onset of steroid-sensitive NS was at 9 years of age, and pathological diagnosis was minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). Until 10 months prior to visiting our hospital, the patient´s NS was in remission. The patient experienced fever, cough, and malaise and she was diagnosed with type B influenza by a local physician 4 days before visiting our hospital. The patient had vomiting and diarrhea 1 day prior to visiting our hospital. Her weight was 54.7 kg (+5.0 kg) and she had pitting edema of both lower legs. Her serum albumin level was 0.9 g/dL, proteinuria level was 8.73 g/gCr, and urine sediments showed 1-4 red blood cells per high-power field. She was diagnosed with relapse of NS. The level of proteinuria decreased to 0.03 g/gCr with rest alone on day 4 of admission, and a complete remission from NS was observed at approximately 2 weeks after the onset of influenza B infection. We report a rare case wherein spontaneous remission of NS occurred within a short period of 2 weeks after influenza B infection. It is clear that some immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of INS, but there are some cases in which infection improves NS and others in which it recurs.