Critical role of microRNAs in host and influenza A (H1N1) virus interactions

As a type of non-coding RNA, microRNAs are considered to be a new regulator in viral infections. Influenza A (H1N1) virus infection is a serious threat to human health. There is growing evidence supporting that microRNAs play important roles in various cellular infection stages and host antiviral response during H1N1 infection. Some microRNAs defend against H1N1 invasion, while others may promote viral replication. MicroRNAs are implicated in the host-viral interactions and serve versatile functions in it. In this review, we focus on the innate immune response and virus replication regulated by microRNAs during H1N1 infection. MicroRNAs can influence H1N1 virus replication by directly binding to viral compositions and through host cellular pathways. Moreover, microRNAs are involved in multiple antiviral response, including production of interferons (IFNs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway, immune cells development and secretion, activation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Furthermore, these regulatory effects of microRNAs suggest its potential clinical significance. In addition, another non-coding RNA, lncRNA, are also mentioned in the review, which can regulate innate immune response and influence virus replication during H1N1 infection as well.