Persistence of pdm2009-H1N1 internal genes of swine influenza in pigs, Thailand

Swine influenza is one of the important zoonotic diseases of pigs. We conducted a longitudinal survey of swine influenza A viruses (S-IAV) circulating in a pig farm with history of endemic S-IAV infection from 2017 to 2018. The samples were collected from 436 pigs including nasal swab samples (n = 436) and blood samples (n = 436). Our result showed that 18.81% (82/436) were positive for influenza A virus and subsequently 57 S-IAV could be isolated. Then 24 out of 57 S-IAVs were selected for whole genome sequencing and could be subtyped as S-IAV-H1N1 (n = 18) and S-IAV-H3N2 (n = 6). Of 24 S-IAVs, we observed 3 genotypes of S-IAVs including rH1N1 (pdm + 1), rH1N1 (pdm + 2), and rH3N2 (pdm + 2). Since all genotypes of S-IAVs in this study contained internal genes from pdmH1N1-2009, it could be speculated that pdmH1N1-2009 was introduced in a pig farm and then multiple reassorted with endemic S-IAVs to generate diversify S-IAV genotypes. Our study supported and added the evidences that pdmH1N1-2009 and it reassortant have predominately persisted in pig population in Thailand. Thus, monitoring of S-IAVs in pigs, farm workers and veterinarians in pig farms is important and should be routinely conducted.