Molecular epidemiology and glycomics of swine influenza viruses circulating in commercial swine farms in the southeastern and midwest United States

Tracking the genetic diversity and spread of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in commercial swine farms is central for control and to reduce the potential emergence of SIV reassortants. We analyzed the diversity of SIVs in nasal washes or oral fluids from commercial swine farms in North Carolina using influenza M qRT-PCR and hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtyping. We found a predominance of H1 HAs and N2 NAs in the samples examined. The majority of the H1 HAs could be further classified into gamma and delta subclusters. We also identified HAs of the H1 alpha cluster, and those of human novel pandemic origin. Glycan binding profiles from a representative subset of these viruses revealed broad α2,6 sialylated glycan recognition, though some strains exhibited the ability to bind to α2,3 sialic acid. These data show that SIV surveillance can aid our understanding of viral transmission dynamics and help uncover the diversity at the human-swine interface.