Serological evidence of avian influenza virus subtype H5 and H9 in live bird market, Myanmar

Avian Influenza (AI), caused by Alphainfluenzaviruses (AIVs), is a contagious respiratory disease in birds and mammals. AIVs have been reported in poultry worldwide and the impact of AIVs on human health is immense. In this study, a serological survey of AIV subtype H5 and H9 was conducted in a live bird market (LBM) in Yangon, Myanmar during February 2016 to September 2016. A total of 621 serum samples were collected from chickens (n = 489) and ducks (n = 132) from 48 vendors in the LBM. The samples were examined for antibodies against influenza viruses by using NP-ELISA and specific antibodies against AIV-H5N1 (Clade 2.3.4) and AIV-H9N2 (Clade 9.4.2) by using Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) assay. The result of NP-ELISA assay showed that 12.88 % (80/621) of poultry in LBM was positive for AIV antibodies. In detail, 38.06 % (51/134) of layers, 7.08 % (8/113) of backyard chicken, 2.07 % (5/242) of broilers and 12.12 % (16/132) of ducks were AIV positive. The HI test for specific antibodies against AIV-H5N1 and AIV-H9N2 were 1.77 % (11/621) and 4.51 % (28/621), respectively. Our findings revealed the evidence of AIV-H5N1 and AIV-H9N2 exposure in both chicken and ducks in the LBM in Yangon, Myanmar. Risks of influenza infections and transmission among poultry and humans in the LBMs could not be ignored.