Exogenous Interleukin-33 Contributes to Protective Immunity via Cytotoxic T-Cell Priming against Mucosal Influenza Viral Infection

Influenza is an infectious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. Though vaccines against influenza exist, they have limited efficacy. To additionally develop effective treatments, there is a need to study the mechanisms of host defenses from influenza viral infections. To date, the mechanism by which interleukin (IL)-33 modulates the antiviral immune response post-influenza infection is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that exogenous IL-33 enhanced antiviral protection against influenza virus infection. Exogenous IL-33 induced the recruitment of dendritic cells, increased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12, and promoted cytotoxic T-cell responses in the local microenvironment. Thus, our findings suggest a role of exogenous IL-33 in the antiviral immune response against influenza infection.